What is MPV in blood test?
MPV in blood test refers the platelet size, which is used as a marker of platelet functionality. This blood test is conducted in a routine blood test and the process is not complicated and inexpensive.
In contrast, of the two different types of platelet, larger platelets are more granulated, aggregated form which can react more quickly with collagen due to the presence of higher thromboxane A2 level, and articulation with more glycoprotein Ib and IIb/IIIa receptors than smaller platelets.
However, both discharge substances, which have a significant role in blood coagulation, swelling, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. (1)
What does MPV mean in a blood test?
The abbreviation of MPV is used in blood test to provide the information of Mean platelet volume. The estimation of platelets is a part of the complete blood count (CBC) blood test.
Therefore, along with platelets volume estimation, the important information of other blood components like RBC and WBC is also possible. (2)
The normal value of the MPV is expressed in a range. The considerable normal range of MPV value is 7.2 – 11.8 fL in adult. It is not constant for every clinical laboratory test result.
Different laboratory uses different techniques or machine, so the test result varies. Therefore, it is recommended every laboratory test result mentioned their followed normal range in the clinical test result report. The variation of this range increases the risk of incidence of cardiovascular complications and heart failure. (3)
MPV blood test high
The prime role of platelets is in blood coagulation and can cause atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is a major etiology of atherothrombosis.
The pathological cause of the development of an intracoronary thrombus is hyperactive large sized platelets and leads to progression of acute coronary syndrome.
- Increased mean platelet volume (MPV) is a biomarker of acute myocardial infarction, as the size and activity of the platelets are measured with MPV.
- High MPV value is also obtained in acute ischemic cardiovascular event.
High MPV can easily be identified during the conduction of the routine blood test and early detection and controlling all the risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidemia help to decrease the cardiac complications. (4)
MPV blood test low
The result of the MPV is lower than the normal range indicates that the collected blood sample has lower number of platelets than the normal.
Clinically, this condition increases the bleeding time and any injury can cause more blood loss due to coagulation disorder. In addition, low MPV is associated symptom of some other conditions or disorders.
Some typical conditions hasve low MPV value, which also consider a normal condition. After initiation of first menstrual cycle, usually females have low MPV. Neonates have low MPV value and this also consider a normal condition.
Error in procedure
After collection of blood samples in the tube, if the sample become coagulated before the test conduction can give a low platelet count, as some amount of platelets are already used for coagulation process. Therefore, the obtain result is false. Although the chance of mistake is very rare.
The following are the disorders associated with a low MPV value
- HIV and other viral infections are usually has direct link with low MPV value.
- Certain drugs, like anticoagulant therapy, e.g. heparin can cause low level of MPV.
- Over activity of spleen can cause low reading of MPV.
- Thrombocytopenia is the disease condition which has direct link with extremely low level of MPV. The usual connection of thrombocytopenia is excessive blood hemorrhage and blood has delayed the coagulation process.
- Aplastic anemia is another cause of low MPV, as it interfere with platelet synthesis.
- Some genetic abnormality, such as hemolytic disorders or lupus causes anemia and has lower MPV value than the normal.
- Rheumatoid arthritis, leukemia etc are examples of autoimmune disorders and may have a direct link with low MPV value. (5)
- Medine Cumhur Cure, M.D.,1 Erkan Cure, M.D.,2 Suleyman Yuce, M.D.,2 Tarkan Yazici, M.D.,1 Inanc Karakoyun, M.D.,3 and Hasan Efe, M.D.1 (2014); Mean Platelet Volume and Vitamin D Level; Ann Lab Med. 2014 Mar; 34(2): 98–103; Retrieve from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3948840/
- Siamak N. Nabili (2015); Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count); Retrieve from: http://www.medicinenet.com/thrombocytopenia_low_platelet_count/page4.htm
- Demirin H1, Ozhan H, Ucgun T, Celer A, Bulur S, Cil H, Gunes C, Yildirim HA.(2011); Normal range of mean platelet volume in healthy subjects: Insight from a large epidemiologic study; Thromb Res. 2011 Oct;128(4):358-60; Retrieve from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21620440
- Georg Slavka, Thomas Perkmann, Helmuth Haslacher, Stefan Greisenegger, Claudia Marsik, Oswald F. Wagner, Georg Endler (2011); Mean Platelet Volume May Represent a Predictive Parameter for Overall Vascular Mortality and Ischemic Heart Disease; American Heart Association, Inc. Retrieve from: http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/31/5/1215.full
- What Does a Low MPV Mean?; Med- Health.net.; Retrieve from: http://www.med-health.net/Low-Mpv.html